Goa has a rich and varied history. It was part of the Mauryan Empire in the 3 rd century BC, followed by the rule of the Satvahanas of Kolhapur and the Bhojas who made Chandor their capital. From 580 - 750 AD the Chalukyas of Badami held sway over Goa until the Silharas took control in 1086 AD. Gulhalla Deva of the Kadambas, originally from Mysore, consolidated his hold over Chandor in the 11th century AD until the 13th century AD. As their kingdom prospered, the Kadamba rulers built a navy that was unbeatable in its time. Chandor their capital was now too small. They then moved to Goa Velha, where only the massive tank of the temple of Goddess Chamunda remains today. The Fr Agnel monastery on the hill at Pilar houses a museum that has notable collections of this period. Jayakeshi-I 1052-1080 AD proclaimed himself Lord of the Konkan and Emperor of the Western Seas. On his death Goa fell to the Chalukyas of Kalyani and later to the Yadavas of Devgiri. Madhav Mantri, who headed the army of Harihara of Vijaynagar, reclaimed and ruled Goa as its Viceroy. In 1469 the Bahamani Vizier Khwaja Mohammed Gawan of Gulbarga laid a two-year siege of Goa's seaside forts and ended Vijayanagar's rule. Yusuf Adil Shah, the adopted son of Gawan, moved his capital to Ela in Old Goa in 1498. He later built himself a palace in Panaji which until recently housed the State Secretariat. His rule lasted 12 years. On 25 November 1510 he lost Goa for good to Afonso de Albuquerque, a Portuguese who had taken the city earlier in March that year. The Portuguese ruled for 450 years. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army liberated Goa from Portuguese rule, the culmination of the efforts of scores of freedom fighters, both Hindu and Christian. Thereafter Goa remained a Union Territory administered from New Delhi till it attained Statehood on May 30, 1987. In August 1992, Konkani, the mother tongue of most Goans was granted official language status under the Indian Constitution. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory.
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